Provisional measures can be adopted if: (i) an investigation has been initiated (ii) a preliminary affirmative determination has been made of dumping and consequent injury to a domestic industry; and (iii) the authorities concerned judge such measures necessary to prevent injury being caused during the investigation.

Price undertaking


voluntary undertakings from any exporter to revise its prices or to cease exports to the area in question at dumped prices so that the authorities are satisfied that the injurious effect of the dumping is eliminate



See application.

Normal value


Representation of the normal price against which the export price is compared to determine if dumping is occurring. Normally based on prices in the domestic market but can also be based on constructed normal value (cost of production plus SGA plus profit) or export prices to third countries. Special rules can be applied with regard to identifying normal value for non-market economies.

The volume of dumped imports shall normally be regarded as negligible if the volume of dumped imports from a particular country is found to account for less than 3 per cent of imports of the like product in the importing Member, unless countries which individually account for less than 3 per cent of the imports of the like product in the importing Member collectively account for more than 7 per cent of imports of the like product in the importing Member.

Lesser duty rule


The WTO AD agreement states that is desirable that the imposition be permissive in the territory of all Members, and that the duty be less than the margin if such lesser duty would be adequate to remove the injury to the domestic industry. Some countries apply a compulsory lesser duty rule (e.g. the EU and India), while others do not (e.g. US).